Welcome to our blog

We aim to bring you interesting and helpful information about osteopathy and complementary medicine within Bristol and beyond.......

Friday 30 December 2016

Festive Greeetings!

We do hope that you have all enjoyed a warm, healthy and festive period. We have been open for three days between Christmas and New Year and have been pleased to help those who have needed our care. We will now be closed until Tuesday 3rd Janueary 2017, when we will re-open and be back to our normal hours. We look forward to welcoming you if and whenever you need the services of our osteopaths and complimentary therapists. Kerry, our massage therapist, is returning from maternity leave and will be re-joining us on Saturdays, and Emilie will continue to offer her massages on weekdays.

We would like to take this opportunity to wish you all a very happy, healthy 2017. From all at The Chandos Clinic.

Tuesday 6 December 2016

Xavier at Wilks: a feast for the eyes, not just the taste-buds!

Many of you will have been "wowed" by Xavier's truly stunning photograph of Pen Y Fan in the Brecon Beacons, which we now have hanging in our reception area. There are also smaller images hanging along the clinic corridor, for sale at £69, if you are considering a very special Christmas gift this year! If you are wanting to see more of his images, Xavier now has an exhibition in our Michelin-starred neighbour Wilks Restaurant, which will be hanging for the next 4 months. There are 18 photographs currently on show there, mostly local scenes of Bristol, but with a couple taken in Italy, and also Dubai.The ones in Wilks are 60cm wide, and cost £140 unframed. Smaller and larger sizes are available, as is float framing. All the pictures are printed on aluminium in Germany and the quality is exceptional. So many people have said they feel that they could just "walk straight in to" the Brecons image in reception! You can view all of Xavier's images on his website: www.xavierdecupphotography.com 
I hear the food is exceptional too!

Tuesday 29 November 2016

Food memories.

Thinking about food, remembering meals, contemplating the next one... is all a lot more complex than we thought. Do read this fascinating article from The Guardian explaining the possible link between dementia and obesity. Mindfulness whilst eating definitely seems to be key.


Tuesday 22 November 2016

Flood Advice!

My goodness, it's soggy out there! Lots of our patients have had trouble getting to us, and those who did, arrived wet and bedraggled. I'm sure there's a lot more rain to come, so if you are unfortunate enough to be caught in all things wild and stormy, we hope this information from BBC News proves useful. Meanwhile, the Chandos Clinic is a haven of warm and dry and we hope you reach us safely.

Tuesday 8 November 2016

Reality check over a phone check!

The picture in this article could be my daughter, the light from her phone seeping through the duvet, first thing in the morning and last thing at night. It doesnt matter how much I rant, or plead, or bribe, she and it are inseperable. It saddens me beyond measure that this constant leeching has replaced those perfect bedtime hours lost in Jacqueline Wilson. My daughter is not alone in this addiction, judging by the figures in the article below from The Guardian, screen checking has become hard-wired for the majority of us. Occasionally I can instigate screen-free time; my tribe harrumph at first but soon we are laughing over board games and inventing new card games. Of course it doesnt last, but it's good to know that they can still operate phone free. Even though I try to enforce "no screens at the table", my eldest seems to have slipped his in to breakfast, so I'm going to introduce Rule 7. As for Rule 9, definitely the most shocking. Really??!!


Tuesday 25 October 2016


The Chandos Neighbourhood Association presents their 
Halloween Pumpkin Carving Competition
on 29th October from 6.30 - 8.30pm.

Many of the windows in our wonderful Chandos Road will be displaying their pumpkin creations so come along and see them. Alternatively the designs will be on Instragram or Facebook with #CHILLINGCHANDOS

Pumpkins can be bought from our fantastic neighbour 
Mabel's Greengrocer at 17 Chandos Rd.
Open: Mon-Fri 8am - 6pm and Sat's 9am - 4pm.
It's a wonder in there, so we're sure you'll come out with more than a pumpkin!

Happy Halloween from all at The Chandos Clinic.

Tuesday 11 October 2016

Yoghurt Health!

An insightful article from Medscape about the fanstic benefits of Yoghurt!
A mega boost for bone density and health, especially in post menopausal women. And there was me just thinking it was nutritious and delicious! Read on...


Friday 30 September 2016


The Children's Clinic has been part of the Chandos Clinic for many years. It involves children being treated by two osteopaths at the same time.

We have found that over many years this makes the treatment process more effective and faster. The advantage for small children is they do not need to spend so long on the treatment couch. For them this is often difficult, as they do not by nature like restrictive situations. We can treat them more quickly and therefore reduce stress on the child.

The other and more important effect is, that the two osteopaths working together, make a treatment much more effective, being greater than the sum of the parts. So the treatment program should be shorter overall, as the children respond better.

Also, the experience of the team of osteopaths working in the clinic is greatly enhanced as Xavier, Giles and Barbara have all been working with children for many years and have a wealth of knowledge and experience between them.

Children's clinic is on Monday afternoons and the fee is £42 for two osteopaths treating your child, helping to resolve their problems as quickly and effectively as possible.

The Children’s Clinic is held on Mondays from 4.00pm – 6.00pm

Monday 19 September 2016

Sunday 25th September, 12 noon to 6pm.

Now in it's third year, the street party in our wonderful vibrant quirky Chandos Rd, is happening this Sunday. The road will be closed to traffic and filled with live music on two stages, great food and craft ales, childrens entertainment, guest stalls, and of course all our own independent shops will have their doors open. Here at Chandos Clinic we will be offering taster sessions with our lovely massage therapist Emilie, and free osteopathy consultations with Davina.  

So do please come along, bring friends and family, and spread the word that Chandos Road is the place to be this Sunday afternoon. We look forward to seeing you there!

Saturday 3 September 2016

Watch and Learn...

Well, we can't control the weather... sorry to all those folks looking forward to seeing Massive Attack on The Downs this evening... but we can control how we sit! Thank you to a young patient of Mala's who brought our attention to this brilliant film on correct sitting posture, perfectly explained and demonstrated by Esther Gokhale at TEDxStanford. Invaluable stuff: enjoy!


Thursday 25 August 2016

Gentle summer days...

Dear Chandos Friends

As August almost curls up it's toes and there's a mild half-hearted drizzle outside our reception window, I do hope you are all feeling refreshed and relaxed from a lovely summer break, wherever you've been. Patients have been drifting in with summer skin and summer tales, new places discovered, inspiring books read, and there's a gentleness to these last days before school terms fire back up again.

From the beginning of September we will be back to our full quota of osteopaths, plus our complimentary therapists, and our lovely new holistic massage practioner Emilie. As always, ring Deb or Pat on reception whatever your requirements. Sadly we will be saying goodbye to Mel (acupuncture and chinese herbs) as she is leaving us to further her studies. She has been an extraordinary asset to the Chandos Clinic and we all wish her well. Her final day with us will be Monday 5th Sept, for her existing clients only.

In the meantime, here is an interesting article from The Guardian; if we were in any doubt before, isn't life amazing!


Tuesday 2 August 2016

Gut health!

Most of us know that "We are what we eat!" and that eating a nutritionally rich and diverse diet brings about innumerable health benefits. This article from The Guardian puts even more weight behind the importance of keeping our guts in tip-top condition (then hopefully none of us will need a poo transplant!)

Monday 1 August 2016

A (tree)top night's sleep!

For so many of us, getting a decent night's sleep is a thing we can only dream of (wide awake). I've blogged in the past about the perils of artificial light and stimuli before bedtime, but this is a fascinating article from The Guardian about a new concept in bed design.


Tuesday 26 July 2016

Know how to save a precious life....

A couple of weeks ago the assembled staff of The Chandos Clinic attended a First Aid in the Workplace training day and we are now all certifiably competent and confident! The following day I bumped in to a friend who was glowing from the fact that earlier that morning she had "revived a bee"! I'm sure I'm not alone in frequently seeing bees who look dead or very nearly dying. It never occurred to me that they were actually just exhausted and that I could revive them with a simple mixture of white sugar and water. I'm mourning all the bees I haven't saved, but hopefully someone followed behind me who knew what to do. In future, I'll now follow the advice of the RSPB below, though unlike my friend, not add a nip of brandy to the bee pick-me-up (she said it still flew off, though who knows how unsteadily and whether it had a thumper of a head the next day). Another website advises only ever using white sugar, (surprisingly not honey) never demerara, and certainly not muscavado! In these current days when the world seems so bent on horrors, it seems especially rich and vital that we can do something as simple and precious as save the life of a weary bee, (without needing to remember the recovery position or try and keep a heart going whilst singing "Staying Alive!")


Monday 18 July 2016

Lyme Disease

The sun is out, the sky is blue... even more of a reason to go yomping in to the wilds, or Ashton Court if you're shorter on time. For those of you that already walk there, you cannot have missed the many warning signs, especially on gates entering the brackeny dear park, about the presence of ticks and Lyme Disease. I saw a tick just the other day and was surprised at how tiny it was, so you do need to check really thoroughly after your walk, and get a friend to help check the places you can't see yourself! Check your dogs too. Long sleeves and long trousers tucked in to socks are the best attire. There is a lot of useful info in this NHS link, so enjoy your walk, but just be vigilant when walking anywhere where ticks might be lying in wait!


Thursday 30 June 2016

Gardener's Delight!

It's not often you come across an article so lovingly observed that it ticks all the boxes for mind, body and soul, but this one from The Guardian is certainly that. Just half an hour ago, I asked a patient what she was doing for the rest of her day, to which she replied "housework" (we both pulled a face) and "gardening" to which we lit up and beamed at each other. We both agreed the housework could go! Gardening is one of those activities where you can be so absorbed, the sun has already begun to dip when you realise lunchtime should have been 5 hours ago. Needless to say, there are times when we go a bit too gung-ho and you might need to see one of us to put you straight, but the benefits of gardening to our well-being definitely out-weigh the aches. So here's to the pleasure of the trowel, the secateurs and the compost heap. And I never walk passed a rose without smelling it's scent, whoever's garden it's in!


Saturday 18 June 2016

Work that body: work that brain!

Two out my three are currently in the middle of school exams. I am always trying to encourage them to reguarly intersperse their revision with some vigorous physical activivity, to stop them from glazing over, and also to stop them from the toxicity of endless sitting. I usually suggest either bouncing on the trampoline for ten minutes or playing the drums. Ideally they then return to their work with renewed focus. According to this article from The Guardian, I've definitely been on the right track...


Tuesday 14 June 2016

                    A Welcome Help with Women's Health

We would like to share with you an excellent service in Women's Health Physiotherapy, offered by colleague and long time practioner, Helen Hodder, who can now see clients privately at our good neighbours, the Alma Vale Centre.

Tuesday 31 May 2016

                                     End of Days...

At the weekend I was at the Hay Festival, and attended the "Letters of Note" event on Saturday, where some of our finest actors and actresses read letters pulled from history, old and contemporary, often very funny or incredibly poignant. One of the stand-outs was Benedict Cumberbatch reading the letter that the palliative care doctor, Dr Mark Taubert, wrote on learning of the death of David Bowie. It is both a private discourse, but also one with a wider wiser insight into how we can, if possible, approach death.


Tuesday 24 May 2016

                                           Eat Well!

The BBC has just published this from The Eatwell Guide.
It's caused lots of brouhaha, especially over the "low fat" debate. On the radio last night, there was also discussion that the most important thing of all is to avoid all processed food. Amid all the noise and clamour from the calorie counters and the big marketeers, I think the seven wise words from food writer Michael Pollan should always be our touchstone: "Eat food, not too much, mostly plants".

Tuesday 17 May 2016

                                  Underfall Yard

I learn so many lovely things, chatting to patients from my receptionists chair. This is what I've just discovered, that there's a new tiny little local eatery, set withing the new Underfall Yard Visitors Centre. Underfall Yard is a true treasure of Bristol, a traditional working boat builders in Hotwells, and with even more of a reason to visit it now that there's good quality food to be had. Enjoy!


Dementia Awareness Week  Sun 15th May - Sat 21st May 2016

Dementia Awareness Week encourages anyone who is worried about dementia to confront their concerns and get in touch with Alzheimer's Society. Hundreds of thousands of families are touched by dementia every year and many people don't know where to turn. Dementia can be scary but you don’t have to face it alone. 

Thursday 5 May 2016

Tuesday 19 April 2016


Often, when patients arrive early and osteos run late, it's a good opportunity to get chatting to patients and discover all sorts of fascinating things you knew nothing of before! So today, when a patient arrived in full "Emergency" biker wear, I initially mistook him for a policeman, but was soon put right that he was actually a volunteer courier for delivering blood between Southmead hospital and wherever it's needed, be that road traffic accidents, air ambulance, or to other hospitals. Across the whole country there are 125 bloodbikers who support the NHS in this way, and in our own area (Bristol Bath Taunton) we have four. They each carry 5 units of blood (an air ambulance carries just 2) and between them they will usually cover 410 miles each day, that's the same distance as Bristol to Paris! The bikes are police spec BMW's which cost £18,000 each. The charity costs £100,000 a year to run and is manned entirely by volunteers, be they bikers, fund-raisers, telephone operators or administrators. I'm sure I have seen Blood bikes out and about, but never given them much thought before. Next time I will certainly give them a respectful nod. I am also going to see if I can volunteer my telephone skills!

For far more information than what I've learnt in the Chandos Clinic reception area this morning, please visit:

Monday 18 April 2016

                                       Save the date!

Mark your diaries for the next
Chandos Rd Street Party on Sunday Sept 25th 2016.
More details as I get them, but it's always a lovely event, and an opportunity to enjoy all that our wonderful road has to offer.

Monday 11 April 2016

                         Get me to the clinic on time!

Googling The Guardian is something I often do to try and get ideas for our blog and so Oliver Burkeman's column got me thinking about the commute to the clinic, as I've received more than the usual number of panicked "I'm running late!" phonecalls today. Our city's notorious traffic clogging means that journey's here are frequently delayed, and although I don't want to jinx it by saying that usually a parking space can be found in Chandos Rd, when you are short on time and need it most is often the time when you have to drive around in circles trying to find that illusive gap. Although the CPZ has on the whole made parking easier, do remember that the side streets off Chandos Rd are "CN" permit holders only, although there are some public spaces available nearby on Hampton Rd. There are two parking metres close by, diagonally opposite the clinic. You are allowed the first 30 mins free, although you still need to get a ticket, and please note this option is not available if you pay via your mobile. Otherwise it's £1 per hour (for a maximum of 3 hours). Although it may be tempting to save a pound and get the "half hour free" ticket, we cannot guarantee that the osteopaths will always run strictly to time, so I would recommend a pound well spent for not stressing that you are going to get caught by the warden. They do come around quite reguarly and they do like getting they're notebooks out! Again, if you arrive really early, perhaps don't pay for your hour straightaway, but check first with the receptonists (Deborah and Pat) to see if your practioner is running on time. Rubicon and Aron's are cafe's you can wait in comfortably or do takeaway drinks you are welcome to bring in to our reception area. Or you can visit our wonderful new greengrocers, Mabel's, two doors up! And if the driving-parking commute to the clinic is just too stressfull altogether, there are frequent buses up and down Whiteladies Rd, as well as the local train stations nearby at Redland and Clifton Down.

If you know that you are running late, we would always appreciate a call (0117 9745084) and we will always do what we can to accomodate you. However, if another patient is booked in immediately after you, your appointment may be unavoidably shorter than normal.

So, here's wishing that your road to our door is safe and clear, your train / bus on time, your parking space nearby and the perfect size. And failing all that, that your legs are strong, the sun is shining and it's the perfect day for a walk to Redland!


Wednesday 30 March 2016

                           Good core, good back !

                                                       by Xavier Decup.

We used to say: strengthen your core to protect your back. That is true, but what is the core, and what is the function of this group of muscles?

Most of us think the core includes only the abdominal and pelvic muscles, and more specifically the front and lateral (outer) part of those muscles. Actually the core includes every muscle from the pelvis to the shoulders, that runs in the front, lateral or back part of the body.

It means that crunch exercises are not efficient enough to strengthen the whole core unit. (Crunches are actually quite bad for the lumbar spine!) The core is made up of two different muscular units the deep and superficial units. Both work together in a complementary way. The deep unit stabilises the spine and the pelvis, and the superficial unit enables movement.

Both units are involved in movement via different muscular chains. When you run, your deep unit will stabilise the spine and make it quite rigid, to offer the best fixed point for the muscles of the leg and pelvis (the superficial unit) which are making the movement. This stabilisation protects the spinal joints and especially the lumbar discs between the vertebrae. The superficial unit actually also helps the deep unit in providing some stabilisation during movement.

So we need to strengthen all the muscles along the spine and also the lateral abdominal muscles from the deep unit. But we should also strengthen the muscles from the superficial unit which run at the front and outer part of the body, including the pectoral and shoulders muscles, and the muscles of the mid back and legs. Pilates, yoga or any exercise including the whole body (body weight exercise) are really efficient and will provide your body and your nervous system with the best muscular functioning.

Not only will your back benefit from this, but your viscera, breathing, blood circulation and digestive functions, all of which are housed in this part of the body, will also improve. 

Saturday 12 March 2016

                          Massage at The Chandos Clinic

Here at The Chandos Clinic, we are blessed to have the exceptional knowledge and experience of our massage practioner, Kerry Pearce. Kerry has been a massage therapist for over 9 years, honing her skills alongside a broad range teachers, including reiki, shiatsu, Thai, Chinese and sports, and slowly incorporating these discliplines in to her own exceptional massage practise. She says "I want to provide my clients with the sort of massage that I would like to receive myself!" What you receive is a unique massage experience, with meticulous attention to detail and intense focus to each client's needs, rather than "one size fits all". I have had several sessions with Kerry, and knew from the outset that I was in the hands of someone with a deep knowledge, skill, and confidence. Kerry will be leaving us at the end of April to go on maternity leave, (but assures us she will be back!) so if you want to see her, do ring the clinic to book on 0117 9745084. She works here on Thursday and Friday afternoons and Saturday mornings. Initial appointments are £60 for a 90 minute massage (including consultation), thereafter £50 per hour.

Monday 7 March 2016

Chandos Road "Window Wonderland" 2016

Look at these inspired contributions to Window Wonderland from The Chandos Clinic and our neighbour, Mabel's fruit and veg shop. Never has cabbage looked so enticing!

Tuesday 16 February 2016

A practioner's insight from Giles Cleghorn

I thought you might like to undertand how I practice so-called “osteopathy”!  I say so-called, as the name osteopathy is very misleading. I treat the whole person and the whole body so it might be better to call it “wholepersonopathy” not osteopathy. The practice of osteopathy includes the spiritual, emotional, mental, environmental, dietary and physical aspects of a patient.

I start, like most practitioners with the case history but to me the case history is the person’s presence in the room. They will talk about what they think is wrong with them.  But my job is to see, sense and feel what is wrong with them. The patients story and thoughts about their problem might be very far from what I perceive is wrong and what is needed to be corrected to help them get well. This is the art of being a practitioner.

I have learnt to read the patients body and being in many of its gross and subtle expressions.  I spend time in analyzing the expression of the body’s anatomy and physiology.  I look for distortions in the alignment of the physical form. This includes the muscles ligaments and bones but also includes the organs and how they rest inside the body. I look at how the organs are functioning and if there are any obstructions to them doing their job.

One of the most important aspects that an osteopath should look at is what the founder Dr. A T Still called the “rule of the artery”. By this he meant the free flow and irrigation form the blood to the tissues throughout the whole body. This includes the brain, the organs and the musculo-skeletal system. He meant not only the blood in an artery but the free return through the veins and the lymphatic vessels back to the heart. The more important aspect of the “rule of the artery” is the fact that, the blood and lymph not only impart oxygen and nutrition and carry away waste, but the fluids also impart essential subtle information which informs the cells about their role. Traveling in the fluids are the immune cells and proteins (antibodies). As well as this there are also electromagnetic waves and energies that have a major role in the regulation of cellular health. All the body is made up of cells so each cell needs full contact with the heart through the fluids at all times to maintain health.

The emotional and mental expressions of a person are also readable. Long term and negative emotions and mental habits have an impact on the body’s functions. Emotion and mental activity have an electromagnetic signature in tissue, which I can read through my hands. From experience I have learnt that there are certain target areas in the body where some typical emotions tend to lodge themselves.

The magic of the art of osteopathy is in the ability of a patient to transform these misalignment disturbances on the “rule of the artery” and the emotional entrapments while and because an osteopath has their hands upon them. How this works we can but speculate. But over an over I have witnessed great changes in my patient’s health and being, for which I am, and they are, eternally grateful.

Giles Cleghorn

MSc DO Dip Hom 

Friday 12 February 2016

 Must we squat to poop?

Prompted by the high recommendation from a patient, I recently purchased a ‘squatty potty’ – no it’s not really a potty it’s actually a footstool to adjust your posture while you poop.  In fact the idea is to put you into the more natural position of squatting for healthy bowel elimination.

So I thought I’d try it and review it and I must say it’s absolutely brilliant.

Years ago I wanted to build a squatting toilet in the garden (long story) but my friends were against it and we went for the more conventional seat.  But with a footrest you can use a conventional modern toilet and just raise your knees and lean forward and you’re in a squatting position.  After extolling the virtues of my new piece of bathroom furniture, I then found out that many of my friends already use either a homemade footrest or a manufactured for purpose prop.  AND they all swear by it.

So why is it so great?  Well it’s a posture thing.  By squatting we take the kink out of our colon by relaxing a muscle called puborectalis so poo doesn’t have to be pushed and squeezed around a corner - making it all so much easier to go.

You might have noticed in the press back in May that squatting is the new sitting as far as toilet behaviour goes.  Although squatting is as old as humanity this press coverage was all due to the recent success of a book by German Scientist Giulia Enders called Darm mit Charm in German or simply Gut in the recently published English translation.  It’s a great book, easy to read, entertaining and full of fun drawings by her sister who is a science illustrator.  I would recommend this book if you want an introduction into how the gut works, how a healthy gut is so important to our immune system and mental health and the latest research into the interactions of gut bacteria with our whole well being.  As a research scientist Enders has oodles of references in the back of the book but she also has a great skill in writing for a general readership.  She is an endearing speaker and her award winning ‘science slam’ based on her research went viral on YouTube in 2012 and is well worth looking up:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFsTSS7aZ5o

So if you’re interested in reducing the time you spend on the toilet, reducing your likelihood of getting haemmorhoids and anal fissures, reducing constipation and being kinder to your pelvic floor then look into a footrest to put you into a squatting position on the toilet.  There are many on the market - squatty potty seems to be the easiest to buy online in the uk but have a look. 

Barbara Moulang

Monday 1 February 2016

Melanie Kennedy
Practitioner of Traditional Chinese Medicine

DipAc,  DipChm,  MRChm, Dip Tui Na, MAcuC, LLB (Hons)

Melanie is qualified in all aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine; acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, which includes dietary training and Tui Na Chinese massage. She graduated as an acupuncturist in 1997 after studying at the Shanghai International Acupuncture Training Centre where she gained a Diploma in Acupuncture. Melanie continued her studies and graduated in Chinese Herbal Medicine in 2000 at the College of Integrated Chinese Medicine in Reading.

She is also a qualified practitioner of Tui Na. Also known as Chinese Massage or Chinese Manipulation, Tui Na is a soft tissue medical massage and joint manipulation therapy. Besides the above, Melanie is also a qualified practitioner of Facial Rejuvenation Therapy, which provides an alternative to cosmetic facial surgery with natural but noticeable results that is very effective in restoring youth to one's face.
Melanie's broad scope enables her to approach almost any presenting disorder in accordance with the ancient principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine, so that each patient can be treated according to their particular needs, 

Initial consultations always begin by taking a full case history that may take up to one hour. A treatment plan is then discussed with the patient.

Length of treatment depends on how chronic the condition is. Most  take an average of 6 weeks to 3 months to remedy and some might need the occasional supportive treatment every 6 months or so if one's lifestyle exacerbates the original condition. A wide variety of of conditions can be helped or supported.

For further information please contact the Chandos Clinic.

Tuesday 26 January 2016

What is Osteopathy?

Here's the description from the Osteopathic Alliance.

"Osteopathy is a philosophy of healthcare that acknowledges that the living body is a self-renewing, self-regenerating, self-recuperating system which maintains health constantly throughout life. Whenever that health-maintaining system is compromised, symptoms or disease could develop. Osteopathy is concerned with that which has compromised health rather than the resulting condition.

"Osteopaths have been regulated by statute since 1993. They are trained to diagnose conventionally and also to use their hands to assess body function and dysfunction. This gives the osteopath uniquely sensitive information about the disability within the body and how this insight might be used to help restore health.

"Although people commonly describe their symptoms in terms of conventional medical conditions, osteopaths do not primarily treat medical conditions; they are more concerned with the cascade of events which could have contributed to the development of those medical conditions."